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3. Surgical Instruments


Gingival retractors are used to hold gingival flaps back and out of the way to expose operative areas. Thoma gingival retractors 1 and 2 are two-pronged, fork-like retractors. Instruments designed for other purposes, such as periosteal elevators (figure 3-16), are also used as retractors.

David L. Heiserman, Editor

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Revised: June 06, 2015