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3. Surgical Instruments


a. General. Extraction forceps are used in the removal of teeth. Variations in these instruments are caused by differences in root shape, size, number, alignment of the tooth, and location in the mouth. Except for those designed for some specific operations, forceps generally follow certain basic principles. They are distinguished by the angles of the beaks, the notches on the beaks, the contour, and the number engraved on the forceps.

b. Maxillary Anterior Forceps.

(1) Forceps number 65 is a bayonet-shaped forceps with pointed nibs used primarily to remove crowded maxillary incisors and root fragments (figure 3-1).

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Figure 3-1. Forceps No. 65.

(2) Forceps number 150S is an S-shaped forceps designed for maxillary anterior and bicuspid teeth and roots (figure 3-2). The Universal Forceps number 150A also is S-shaped and used to extract all maxillary teeth.

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Figure 3-2. Forceps No. 150S.

(3) Forceps number 286 is a bayonet-shaped forceps (figure 3-3). It is used primarily for extracting maxillary anterior teeth and roots. It may be used for bicuspids.

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Figure 3-3. Forceps No. 286

(4) Forceps #1 (Winter) is no longer in the Medical Supply Catalog, but you may see it in clinics.

c. Maxillary Posterior Forceps.

(1) Forceps number 150S may also be used for maxillary bicuspids.

(2) Forceps numbers 53R and 53L are bayonet-shaped forceps designed for maxillary first and second molars. Number 53R is designed for teeth on the right side of the maxillary arch, number 53L for teeth on the left side (figure 3-4).

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Figure 3-4. Forceps numbers 53R and 53L.

(3) Forceps number 210 has a hooked handle. It is a bayonet-shaped forceps designed for maxillary third molars (figure 3-5).

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Figure 3-5. Forceps number 210.

d. Mandibular Anterior Forceps.

(1) Forceps number 151S is a canoe-shaped universal forceps used to extract all mandibular anterior teeth (figure 3-6).

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Figure 3-6. Forceps number. 151S.

(2) Forceps number 203 is used for extracting mandibular anterior teeth, bicuspids, and roots (figure 3-7).

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Figure 3-7. Forceps number 203.

e. Mandibular Posterior Forceps.

(1) Forceps numbers 151S, and 203, as noted above may be used for mandibular bicuspids. See figures 3-6 and 3-7.

(2) Forceps number 15 has a hooked handle (figure 3-8). It is designed for mandibular first and second molars.

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Figure 3-8. Forceps number 15.

(3) Forceps number 222 has L-shaped beaks. It is designed for mandibular third molars (figure 3-9).

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Figure 3-9. Forceps number. 222.

(4) Forceps number 217 has cow horn-shaped beaks and a hooked handle (figure 3-10). It is designed for mandibular molars.

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Figure 3-10. Forceps number 217.

(5) Forceps number 16 is generally obsolete, but you may see it in clinics.

David L. Heiserman, Editor

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Revised: December 03, 2014