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2. Restorative Instruments


a. Carvers.

(1) Amalgam carvers (figure 2-19). Amalgam carvers are used to carve anatomy into partially set amalgam restorations. This includes the "H" or No. 14 carver.

Figure 2-19. "H" carver.

(2) Amalgam and wax carver (figure 2-20). These include Hollenback carvers 1, 2, and 3. They are suitable for carving both amalgam and wax.

Figure 2-20. Amalgam and wax carvers.

(3) Miscellaneous carvers (figure 2-21). Discoid and cleoid carvers are adaptable to several uses, including excavation of carious dentin and carving of amalgam or wax. They are named Black excavators 89 and 92. The cleoid and discoid carvers are often found as a double-ended instrument. An example is the Tanner number 5.

Figure 2-21. Discoid and cleoid carvers.

(4) Wax carvers (figure 2-22). Only one instrument, the Roach carver, is listed as a wax carver.

Figure 2-22. Wax carver.

b. Hand Finishing Instruments.

(1) Burnishers (figure 2-23). Burnishers are used to polish, work-harden, or burnish gold or other metals and materials. Burnishing is the process of moving or drawing a surface of metal to a greater depth. If a round steel point is rubbed over a margin of a gold alloy inlay, the metal may be moved so that any small discrepancy between the restoration and the tooth is closed. This action will finish (even) the margins of restorations.

(2) Knives. Knives may be used to finish the margins of restorations. Black number 8 is in common use.

Figure 2-23. Hand finishing instruments.

c. Motor-Driven Rotary Finishing Instruments.

(1) Finishing burs (figure 2-24). Finishing burs are used to even the margins and polish the surface of dental restorations. They are available in round, oval, bud, sugarloaf, and tapered fissure shapes. Round and bud shapes are available for both AHP and SHP; the remaining shapes for AHP only.

Figure 2-24. Finishing burs.

(2) Mandrels (figure 2-25). Mandrels are used to hold disks and wheels during their use. Snap-head mandrels are used only for sandpaper and linen-backed disks with a special brass center which snaps on to the mandrel. Screw-type mandrels are used to mount abrasive disks and unmounted stones.

Figure 2-25. Snap-head mandrel.

(3) Abrasive and polishing disks (figure 2-26). Disks of various diameters and surfaced with various abrasives upon different types of backings are used for purposes ranging from rapid cutting of enamel to fine polishing of restorations. They include sandpaper disks (abrasive on one side), double-cutting disks (abrasive on both sides), and diamond disks. Diamond disks must be cooled with water or air when used.

Figure 2-26. Unmounted abrasive disks, screw-in type and snap-on type.

(4) Mounted stones and wheels (figure 2-27). Mounted stones and wheels of diamond or silicon carbide are used for grinding, cutting, and polishing. They are available in ball, cone, inverted cone, cylinder, tapered cylinder, knife-edge, round-edged, and other shapes and sizes.

Figure 2-27. Mounted abrasive stones and wheels.

(5) Unmounted abrasive wheels. Abrasive wheels of various dimensions and materials are used for grinding, cutting, and polishing.

(6) Rubber polishing wheels. Rubber wheels of various sizes, unimpregnated or impregnated with pumice, are used to polish teeth and restorations.

(7) Polishing cups and brushes (figure 2-28). These cups and brushes are used to polish teeth and restorations.

Figure 2-28. Polishing cup and polishing brush.

David L. Heiserman, Editor

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Revised: June 06, 2015