Essentials of

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Part 3--Construct a Brick Wall


By varying the ways in which you lay individual bricks in a wall, you can form a variety of patterns or bonds (Figure 3-2). Different bonds use different combinations of stretchers (bricks laid flat with the long face parallel to the wall) and header (brick laid flat, perpendicular to the face of the wall). A course made up entirely of stretchers is called a stretcher course; a course formed entirely of headers is a header course. The different types of bonds are listed below:

  • Running Bond. This is the simplest bond. It consists entirely of stretchers.
  • Common or American Bond. A common or American bond is a variation of a running bond with a full course of headers at regular intervals.
  • Flemish Bond. In a Flemish bond, each course of bricks is made up of alternate stretchers and headers. The headers in alternate courses are centered over the stretchers in the intervening courses.
  • English Bond. The English bond is composed of alternating courses of headers and stretchers.
  • Stack Bond. In a stack bond, there is no overlapping of the units; all vertical joints are aligned.
  • English Cross Bond. This bond is a variation of the English bond and is different only in that the vertical joints between the stretchers in alternate courses do not line up vertically.

Figure 3-2.  Types of brick bonds
Figure 3-2. Types of brick bonds

David L. Heiserman, Editor

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Revised: June 06, 2015