Case 5

Chapter 5

Nonlethal Capabilities Set and Employment Considerations

During the past several decades, US forces have regularly performed peacekeeping and peace enforcement missions at a greater tempo than in the past. In the peacekeeping and peace enforcement environment, the use of conventional firearms or the threat of their use may not be the solution to a situation where US forces must separate two belligerent, hostile ethnic groups or prevent a similar group from entering an area that is off-limits to them. However, a show of force using NLW and NL munitions will cause crowds to disperse, separate, or leave the area with minimal causalities. The NLCS is a well-rounded, versatile package of both commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) and government off-the-shelf (GOTS) NL equipment and munitions. NLCS contents are divided into four distinct categories: personnel protectors, personnel effectors, mission enhancers, and training devices.

Personnel Protectors

5-1. Personnel protectors provide the individual soldier with added protection to the sensitive and vital areas of his body. They provide excellent protection for the individual soldier from trauma often inflicted by thrown objects (such as rocks, bricks, sticks, and bottles).

NONBALLISTIC RIOT FACE SHIELD

5-2. A nonballistic riot face shield (see Figure 5-1) has two adjustable positions and is constructed of hard durable plastic that securely attaches to the KevlarŽ helmet. It may be worn with an M17 or M40 protective mask and is designed to protect the soldier's head, face, and neck from thrown objects. Nonballistic riot face shields will not protect from attacks with ballistic weapons, such as firearms. All soldiers operating in a civil disturbance environment should be outfitted with riot face shields.

Figure 5-1. Nonballistic Riot Face Shield

NONBALLISTIC FULL-LENGTH SHIELD

5-3. A nonballistic full-length riot shield (see Figure 5-2) is a body shield constructed of hard durable plastic. Left- and right-handed personnel can easily use the nonballistic full-length riot shield. It is designed to protect the soldier's face, torso, and upper legs from thrown objects. Nonballistic full-length riot shields will not provide protection from ballistic weapons. Only the front line of skirmishers and those providing lateral protection to both flanks of the formation will be outfitted with nonballistic full-length riot shields.

Figure 5-2. Nonballistic Full-Length Riot Shield

NONBALLISTIC SHIN GUARD

5-4. The nonballistic shin guards (see Figure 5-3) are constructed of hard durable plastic and are easily fastened to a soldier's legs. They are designed to protect the soldiers, feet, shins, and knees from thrown objects. They will not provide protection from ballistic weapons, such as firearms. All soldiers operating in a civil disturbance environment should be outfitted with shin guards.

Figure 5-3. Nonballistic Shin Guards

BALLISTIC RIOT FACE SHIELD

5-5. The ballistic riot face shield (see Figure 5-4) has two adjustable positions constructed of acrylic and bullet-resistant materials that provide the wearer with Level IIIA protection. The ballistic riot face shield easily attaches to the Kevlar helmet and is capable of being worn with either an M17 or M40 protective mask. It will protect the soldier from hand-thrown objects. Because of its excessive weight (3.4 pounds), the ballistic riot face shield should not be worn for standard riot control operations. Ballistic riot face shields are best suited for use within specialized teams associated with riot control operations; for example, teams responsible for the search and apprehension of identified criminals or building- and alley-clearing operations.

Figure 5-4. Ballistic Riot Face Shield

BALLISTIC FULL-LENGTH RIOT BODY SHIELD WITH LIGHT KIT

5-6. The ballistic full-length riot body shield (see Figure 5-5) is constructed from Spectra ShieldŽ bullet-resistant material that provides a soldier with Level IIIA protection. It will protect the soldier from thrown objects. Because of its excessive size (18 pounds and 20 by 36 inches), the ballistic full-length riot body shield should not be used as part of a standard riot control operation. Ballistic full length riot body shields are best suited for use within specialized teams associated with riot control operations; for example, teams responsible for the search and apprehension of identified criminals or building- and alley-clearing operations.

Figure 5-5. Ballistic Full-Length Riot Body Shield

BALLISTIC SHIN GUARDS

5-7. Ballistic shin guards (see Figure 5-6) are constructed of Kevlar KM2 materials and provide a soldier with Level IIIA protection to the feet, shins, and upper legs. They protect the soldier from hand-thrown objects. There are three different sizes, and because of their excessive weight (7 to 10 pounds), ballistic shin guards should not be deployed as part of a standard riot control operation. Ballistic shin guards are best suited for use within specialized teams associated with riot control operations; for example, teams responsible for the search and apprehension of identified criminals or building- and alley-clearing operations.

Figure 5-6. Ballistic Shin Guards

Personnel Effectors

5-8. Personnel effectors are those items that provide soldiers with an NL response without the necessity of always coming into direct physical contact with aggressors. Personnel effectors are 12-gauge and 40-millimeter ammunition that inflict blunt trauma. These munitions are compatible with the shotgun and the M203 grenade launcher already in the Army inventory. There are also diversionary and rubber ball grenades, which distract and inflict blunt trauma.

Wood Riot Baton With Belt Ring (36 Inches)

5-9. The 36-inch wood riot baton (see Figure 5-7) is made from solid oak. When held properly, the riot baton thong provides greater retention capabilities. Intended primarily for self-defense, the 36-inch wood riot baton can be used effectively as an offensive tool if it becomes necessary to keep rioters out of arm's reach of soldiers conducting crowd control operations.

Figure 5-7. Wood Riot Baton

Expandable Riot Baton With Carrier (24 to 36 Inches)

5-10. The expandable riot baton (see Figure 5-8) provides the soldier with an NL means of crowd control and self-defense. The riot baton comes with a mounting device that attaches the riot baton to a belt. The riot baton is 24 to 36 inches in length and is primarily intended for self-defense. The expandable riot baton can be used effectively as an offensive tool if it becomes necessary to keep rioters out of arm's reach of soldiers conducting crowd control operations.

Figure 5-8. Expandable Riot Baton and Carrier

500 (3 Inch) 12-Gauge Shotgun

5-11. The 12-gauge shotgun (see Figure 5-9) is a pump action shotgun currently in NLCS inventory. The pump action shotgun is chambered to take up to 3-inch shells. The 3-inch chamber allows for the use of M1012 and M1013 NL munitions. This shotgun also provides a visually distinct alternative to standard military weapons that may be desired based on mission considerations (force signature and acceptability).

Figure 5-9. 12-Gauge Shotgun

M7 66-Millimeter Launcher With M315 Installation Kit

5-12. The M7 (see Figure 5-10) is a 66-millimeter vehicle-mounted, NL, grenade-launching device that is mounted on a HMMWV. It is an indirect fire support system that can deliver the M98 distraction grenade that creates a flash-bang effect, L96A1 antiriot grenade, or M99 blunt trauma grenade that creates a sting-ball effect. The M315 installation kit is used to install an M7 discharger on the turret ring of appropriate HMMWV variants. An adjustable bracket allows the launch angle to be depressed for engaging targets at ranges of 50, 75, and 100 meters. The system enforces standoff distances and deters potential threats.

Figure 5-10. M7 Launcher

Modified Crowd Control Munition-Ground Emplacement

5-13. Similar in nature to the claymore mine, the modified crowd control munition-ground emplacement (MCCM-GE) (see Figure 5-11) is an NL munition that can deliver six hundred .32-caliber rubber pellets and a flash-bang effect. The MCCM-GE will stop, confuse, disorient, and/or temporarily incapacitate area targets and/or personnel at ranges out to 30 meters.

 

Figure 5-11. MCCM-GE

 

 

WARNING

Avoid employing the MCCM-GE within 10 meters of personnel as it may cause serious bodily harm or death.

12-Gauge, Fin-Stabilized Point, Nonlethal Cartridge (M1012)

5-14. The M1012 (see Figure 5-12) is a single projectile round made of hard rubber that is shaped like a bomblet and designed to be fired a at a single target. With a muzzle velocity of 500 feet per second, the M1012 has the effective range of no closer than 5 meters and no further than 30 meters. Engagement inside 5 meters could cause serious injury or death. Beyond 30 meters the kinetic energy dissipates to the point where the round becomes ineffective.

Figure 5-12. M1012

12-Gauge, Crowd Dispersal, Nonlethal Cartridge (M1013)

5-15. The M1013 (see Figure 5-13) is a multiple projectile round with .23 caliber hard rubber pellets that is designed to be fired at and employed with the purpose of affecting multiple targets. With a muzzle velocity of 900 feet per second, the M1013 has an effective range of no closer than 5 meters and no further than 30 meters. Engagement inside 5 meters could cause serious injury or death. Beyond 30 meters, the kinetic energy dissipates to the point where the rubber pellets become ineffective.

Figure 5-13. M1013

 

40-Millimeter Sponge Grenade (M1006)

5-16. The M1006 (see Figure 5-14) is a single projectile round made of pliable foam rubber with a hard plastic back. The M1006 is designed to be aimed and fired at a single target. With a muzzle velocity of 265 feet per second, the M1006 has an effective range of no closer than 10 meters and no further than 50 meters. Engagements inside 10 meters could cause serious injury or death. Beyond 50 meters, the kinetic energy dissipates to the point where the round becomes ineffective.

Figure 5-14. M1006

40-Millimeter Crowd Dispersal Cartridge

5-17. The crowd dispersal cartridge (CDC) (see Figure 5-15) is a multiple projectile round with .48 caliber hard rubber balls that is designed to be fired and employ with the purpose of affecting multiple targets. With a muzzle velocity of 450 feet per second, the CDC has an effective range of no closer than 10 meters and no further than 30 meters. Engagement inside 10 meters could cause serious injury or death and beyond 30 meters the kinetic energy dissipates until the rubber balls become ineffective.

Figure 5-15. CDC

 

Rubber Ball Grenade (GG04)

5-18. The GG04 (see Figure 5-16) is a multiple projectile, flash-bang grenade with 100 .25-caliber hard rubber pellets. Each grenade has a fuse delay of 2.8 to 3 seconds with a flash measuring approximately 1 million CP and 180 decibels at 3.5 feet. At detonation, rubber pellets are dispatched at 360° with an effective range of 2 to 3 meters and a maximum engagement range of 15 to 20 meters. The rubber ball grenade is designed to be hand-thrown or muzzle-launched from a 12-gauge shotgun.

Figure 5-16. GG04

Rubber Ball Grenade Launching Cup and AA30 12-Gauge Launch Round

5-19. The launch cup (see Figure 5-17) firmly attaches to the 12-gauge shotgun without any additional tools. It works in concert with the AA30 12-gauge launch round to propel the rubber ball grenade approximately 100 meters. The shooter simply inserts the full body and the safety lever of the grenade into the launching cup, pulls the pin, loads a 12-gauge round, and fires (approximately) at a 30° angle. The desired effect is to have the grenade explode approximately 7 to 10 feet above the target.

Figure 5-17. Launching Cup and AA30

Reloadable Flash-Bang Grenade (M84)

5-20. The M84 (see Figure 5-18) is a reloadable flash-bang thrown grenade. Each grenade has a 1- to 2-second fuse delay, with a flash capability of 1.5 to 2.5 million CP and a bang of 168 to 175 decibels. Although it is part of the NLCS, use of the M84 is not recommended for use in crowd control situations. Specialty teams, such as security response teams, and search teams may use this device effectively.

Figure 5-18. M-84

Flex-Cufs

5-21. Flex-Cufs consist of a tough pliable plastic band with a self-locking mechanism in the center for each end. When the Flex-Cuf (see Figure 5-19) is threaded the restraint bands circle around the wrists or ankles, impeding movement and securing the individual. They are lightweight and disposable and require a cutting tool or other instrument to remove.

Figure 5-19. Flex-Cufs

Individual Riot Control Agent Disperser (M36)

5-22. The M36 (see Figure 5-20) contains a Dibenz (F, -1 4-oxazepine [CR] solution. It can deliver 25 one-second bursts out to 12 feet. Individual disposable RCA dispersers are intended primarily for self-defense or to keep rioters out of arm's reach of soldiers conducting crowd control formations or soldiers engaged in missions where a noncombatant exists.

Figure 5-20. M36

Midsize Riot Control Agent Disperser (M37)

5-23. The M37 (see Figure 5-21) is the size of a standard fire extinguisher that uses compressed air to force the RCA out to a range of 30 feet. It has the capacity to employ 18 bursts for 3 seconds per charge. It is excellent for providing a wide coverage of RCAs onto a hostile crowd while maintaining excellent standoff capability. The M37 can be refilled and is rechargeable. It can be filled with CR solution (liquid agent) or CS1 (dry agent). For training purposes, CR can be substituted with water and CS1 can be substituted with talcum powder.

Figure 5-21. M37

Squad Riot Control Agent Disperser (M33A1)

5-24. The M33A1 (see Figure 5-22) is designed to provide crowd control and protection at the squad level. It is capable of projecting a ballistic stream of RCAs beyond 25 feet in up to 25 half-second bursts. It consists of a frame and harness assembly, compressed-gas cylinder (agent container assembly), air pressure assembly, gun and hose assembly, multijet spray unit, and check valve assembly. The M33A1 can be refilled and is rechargeable. For training purposes, CR can be substituted with water and CS1 can be substituted with talcum powder.

Figure 5-22. M33A1

Mission Enhancers

5-25. Mission enhancers aid the commander in various tactical situations. Mission enhancers include various types of devices used for illumination, vehicle denial, traffic control missions, and force protection enhancement.

Portable Bullhorn

5-26. The portable bullhorn (see Figure 5-23) provides squad leaders with the capability to project their voices above the noise and commotion created by crowds and mobs. The megaphone has a built-in siren for alarm purposes that allows the operator to use the device as an ordinary megaphone and siren alarm during emergencies. The bullhorn is portable and easy to carry. The acoustic range of the megaphone for a clear voice output is to 1 mile. The power output of the megaphone is rated at 15 watts with a maximum rating of 20 watts. The dimensions of the megaphone are 14.5 inches with a 9-inch diameter bell. It weighs 3.5 pounds without batteries. Battery requirements for the megaphone are eight dry-cell size C batteries.

Figure 5-23. Portable Bullhorn

Ground-Mounted Bullhorns

5-27. Ground-mounted bullhorns (see Figure 5-24) are a critical communication enhancement device for conducting crowd control tactics. The bullhorn can facilitate communication with the crowd in conjunction with PSYOP support and assistance with the communication of commands to troops engaged in the crowd control process. The power output of the ground-mounted bullhorn is rated at 22 watts. The dimensions of the bullhorn are 13.75 by 9 by 14.75 inches, and it weighs 15 pounds.

Figure 5-24. Ground-Mounted Bullhorns

Individual Voice Amplification System (M7)

5-28. The M7 (see Figure 5-25) is a critical communication enhancement device for conducting crowd control tactics using RCAs while wearing the M40 protective mask. The M7 is fitted to the M40 protective mask to facilitate oral communication and increase the user's ability to communicate using radios and other devices.

Figure 5-25. Individual Voice Amplification System

Individual High-Intensity Searchlight With Holster

5-29. The individual high-intensity searchlight (see Figure 5-26) is used primarily for illumination in crowd control operations at night. An individual can use it for general illumination of the operational area to pinpoint agitators and threats, reduce the ability of the rioters to see troop formations and actions, enhance tactical deception and actions, and enhance tactical deception techniques for units conducting crowd control operations.

Figure 5-26. Individual High-Intensity Searchlight with Holster

High-Intensity Light

5-30. A high-intensity light (see Figure 5-27) is intended for use in low light or night conditions. A high-intensity light can project a beam that will enable the user to identify an individual person up to 1,900 yards away. It has an adjustable beam spread of 1° to 15° and will run continuously at maximum power for up to 45 minutes. The internal power supply requires 4 hours for a full charge.

Figure 5-27. High-Intensity Light

High-Intensity Light System With 12-Gauge Shotgun Attachment Kit

5-31. This 12-guage high-intensity light system (see Figure 5-28) is used to illuminate possible targets in crowd control situations where there is little or no light. It serves to blur or blind the aggressor's ability to see. It mounts easily to the end of the 12-gauge shotgun barrel.

Figure 5-28. 12-Gauge High-Intensity Light System
With 12-Gauge Shotgun Attachment Kit

40-Millimeter Carrying Pouch

5-32. The 40-millimeter carrying pouch is made from durable canvas material, (see Figure 5-29) and can be easily affixed to load-bearing equipment (LBE) and/or a load-bearing vest (LBV) using Velcro straps. It is capable of carrying up to six 40-millimeter rounds.

Figure 5-29. 40-Millimeter Carrying Pouch

 

12-Gauge Utility Pouch

5-33. The 12-gauge utility pouch is made from durable canvas material (see Figure 5-30). It can be easily affixed to an LBE and/or LBV using metal clasps. The 12-gauge utility pouch is capable of carrying up to twenty-five 12-gauge shotgun rounds.

Figure 5-30. 12-Gauge Utility Pouch

12-Gauge Buttstock Cuff

5-34. The 12-gauge buttstock cuff (see Figure 5-31) firmly attaches to the shotgun by sliding over the stock. Elastic straps aid in preventing the buttstock cuff from sliding or rolling. It holds up to seven 12-gauge cartridges, which give the soldier quick access to additional rounds.

Figure 5-31. 12-Gauge Buttstock Cuff

Diversionary and/or Rubber Ball Grenade Pouches

5-35. The diversionary and/or rubber ball grenade pouch (see Figure 5-32) is an ammunition-carrying pouch made of durable canvas material. It is partitioned in a manner to provide the soldier with a means of holding up to six rubber ball grenades or six flash-bang grenades in separate compartments.

Figure 5-32. Diversionary and/or Rubber Ball Grenade Pouch

Caltrops

5-36. The caltrop (see Figure 5-33) is a field-expedient area denial system. Securing approximately 50 caltrops to 550-type military cord allows a soldier to quickly toss and recover the system. Caltrops are used to deny vehicle and pedestrian movement in designated areas. The four prongs are approximately 2 inches tall and will puncture tires or boots. A soldier can easily employ the caltrop by scattering it in a designated area hidden by camouflage.

Figure 5-33. Caltrop

Portable Vehicle Arrest Barrier

5-37. A portable vehicle arrest barrier (PVAB) (see Figure 5-34) is a lightweight, portable, manually-emplaced and recoverable-barrier entrapment device that is used (on command) to create a barrier that will stop vehicles being driven by known or suspected hostile forces with minimal damage to the vehicle and its occupants. Two individuals can easily emplace it in approximately 4 to 8 hours. It has the capability of stopping a light truck (up to 7,500 pounds) at speeds of up to 45 miles per hour with a stopping distance of less than 200 feet. It is not to be used as a stand-alone system. The PVAB may be used at dismount points, checkpoints, and roadblocks to prevent unauthorized access by wheeled vehicles into or out of areas.

Figure 5-34. PVAB

Training Devices

5-38. Training devices that commanders can use to effectively prepare their soldiers are included in the NLCS. Training devices allow soldiers to learn and build confidence in the development of personal defensive skills. These are critical pieces of equipment because they allow soldiers to train at almost full speed, which provides reinforcement of realistic motor skills. Training in this manner has proven to be more effective than just striking out at the air.

Impact Training Suit

5-39. Impact training suits (see Figure 5-35) are made of closed-cell shock-absorbent foam that allows soldiers to hone their riot baton skills through realistic hand-to-hand training. Impact training suits absorb strikes inflicted by the current expandable and wooden riot batons. They provide protection for the head, face, hands, and legs without significant degradation of the wearer's mobility.

Figure 5-35. Impact Training Suits

Training Strike Bags

5-40. Training strike bags (see Figure 5-36) give the soldier a durable, yet absorbing surface to strike or kick for training. It also helps develops proficiency in open-hand control and riot baton techniques.

Figure 5-36. Training Strike Bag

Practice Grenade Body (GG05)

5-41. The GG05 is blue in color and is easily identified as a practice grenade (see Figure 5-37). It is designed to replicate the live GG04 rubber ball grenade. It is made of durable rubber and can be hand-thrown or muzzle-launched from the 12-gauge shotgun. It can be reloaded.

Figure 5-37. GG05

Practice Grenade Fuse

5-42. The practice grenade fuse (see Figure 5-38) is identified by its blue spoon and brown stripe. It easily screws into the body of the GG05. Once used, unscrew the practice grenade fuse from the body and reload it with a new fuse.

 

Figure 5-38. Practice Grenade Fuse

 

 

Core Capabilities

5-43. Core capabilities are those fundamental competencies that enable the commander to achieve the desired operational outcome. In the case of NLW, this includes providing a flexible means of response in order to protect friendly forces and/or influence the actions of potential adversaries and noncombatants. With the availability of the NCLS (see Figure 5-39) these goals can be achieved without resorting to lethal force and in a manner that will minimize collateral damage. The core capabilities associated with NL effects fall into the following two major categories:

ˇ         Counterpersonnel. NL counterpersonnel capabilities enable the application of military force with a reduced risk of fatalities or serious casualties among noncombatants or, in some instances, among enemy forces. There are several specific NL counterpersonnel capabilities to be explored. These include the means to influence the behavior and activities of a potentially hostile crowd, and the capability to bring a mob engaged in a riot under control. While there are many similarities in these two scenarios, each involves unique challenges, which may require radically different solutions. For more information, see FM 3-22.40.

ˇ         Countermaterial. NL countermateriel capabilities enhance operations by rendering equipment and facilities unusable without complete destruction. An NL countermateriel capabilities enable the application of military force to defuse potentially volatile situations under circumstances in which more destructive conventional military means might prove counterproductive. For example, pre-emptive strikes against troublesome and aggressive nations may be politically unacceptable when only conventional weapons with the high risk of casualties are involved. With NL countermateriel capabilities, the enemy's ability to threaten its neighbors could be curtailed with less political risk by attacking only their weapons of war and their supporting infrastructure. For more information, see FM 3-22.40.

 

Figure 5-39. NLCS Distribution

 

Additional Capabilities

5-44. NLW are only NL when fired within their parameters.

DANGER

If NLW are fired outside their parameters, they my cause serious injury or death.

5-45. If a situation turns from NL to lethal, an NL gunner only needs to change his point of aim and distance to inflict serious bodily harm and/or death to the threat. The closer the soldier is to the target, the greater the kinetic energy and the more severe the effects are to the threat.

Employment Considerations

5-46. NL munitions and equipment are not completely NL; they are NL by intent. The term NL does not guarantee zero mortality or nonpermanent damage. NLW can add flexibility to combat operations and enhance force protection by providing an environment in which friendly troops can engage threatening targets with a reduced risk of noncombatant casualties and collateral damage.

5-47. If the tactical situation dictates a NL response, a soldier who levels a weapon loaded with NL munitions must be trained in distance to the target and appropriate points of aim. Based on the soldier's understanding and training on the characteristics and capabilities of the round, they can easily discern and engage targets to the desired effect. If the tactical situation dictates a lethal response, soldiers can easily adjust the point of aim to a more vulnerable target location on the body and move in closer to the target. NL munitions can be used as a lethal response if the situation dictates and the intent of the soldier is to inflict death.

Nonlethal Weapons Capabilities in Formations

5-48. The mix of NLW within the formation is based on METT-TC. For example, the first rank of the formation will have riot shields, riot batons, and their personal weapon (slung across their back [left to right] with the butt up and muzzle down or holstered). The second row will have a mix of shotguns and M203s. Shotguns and M203s may be used as area denial or point target weapons depending on the specific munitions used. The shotgun provides cover for the slower loading M203. The commander may move these weapons within the formation to meet the needs of the mission and to create distance between the formation and the crowd (see Appendix D

 

End