Unit 3
Elements of Organic Chemistry

3-14. AMIDES

Amides are formed from the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an amine or ammonia and have the general formula803fig0322.jpg (2587 bytes)where R and R' can be the same or different hydrocarbon groups.

Properties of Amides. Amides, because of the hydrogen attached to the nitrogen atom, can form hydrogen bonds between themselves. They have higher boiling and melting points than corresponding alkanes. Since they can also form hydrogen bonds with water, amides containing up to five carbon atoms are soluble in water.

Reactions of Amides. Amides are neutral in pH and undergo the hydrolysis reaction. For amides, hydrolysis is the splitting of the compound with the incorporation of water to form a carboxylic acid and an amine.

803fig0319.jpg (6814 bytes)

Uses of Amides. Some examples of drug molecules containing the amide functional group are shown below1