case 24



"Bread" is an accepted term used for centuries to describe a mixture of flour, sugar, shortening, salt, and liquid that is made into dough. When yeast is added, the dough is raised by the action of the added ingredient, and the dough mass that results is leavened, or fermented, and baked at a determined stag. This same combination of ingredients is used for making bread rolls. Sweet dough products including sweet rolls, coffee cakes, and doughnuts differ from loaf bread and bread rolls principally in the proportion of ingredients used. The dough formula for these items is richer than that used for bread. Also. more sugar is used, and eggs and spices, ingredients not usually contained in bread, are incorporated.



Yeast dough that is intended mainly for use as rolls is usually softer than dough that is made into loaves. Also, a richer formula is used for rolls, and less mixing is required


The standard hot-roll recipe (fig. 6) gives the quantity of ingredients for 100 servings and the methods of preparation. Figure 7, an excerpt from Armed Forces Recipe Service, is a guide for hot-roll makeup.


When more or lest than 100 servings are needed, either the true percentages method or the baker's percentages method may be used for converting the recipe. The standard recipe for sweet dough is shown in figure 8. The first column of the recipe gives the percentage of each ingredient in relation to the total quantity of the entire recipe. This percentage, known as true percentage, is based on the total weight of all the recipe ingredients, the sum of which represents 100 percent. The baker's percentages method is based on flour being 100 percent of the formula. Figure 9 gives instructions for recipe conversion by the true percentages method, and figure 10, by the baker's percentages method. In order to use the baker's percentages method, it is necessary to use the formula based on 100 percent flour. Table 2 shows baker's percentages for ingredients of rolls, sweet dough, and other yeast-raised dough products.


A guide for preparation of yeast breads, from Armed Forces Recipe Service is shown in figure 11. For lighter more moist rolls, mix the ingredients fully, and allow the dough to develop to full volume. The food service sergeant should remind dining facility personnel that warm dough ferments and proofs more rapidly. During hot weather, the dough should be slightly cooler.


Changes take place within the dough at a rate determined by the ingredients in the formula, the temperature of the dough, and the conditions surrounding the dough. Quality is greatly determined by the speed, completeness, and uniformity of these changes. Table 3, an excerpt from Armed Forces Recipe Service, shows the characteristics of good quality breads. Table 4 lists the causes of poor quality breeds.



Among the various yeast-raised doughs made in the dining facility, sweet dough is one of the most common. It is made from formulas high in sugar, shortening, eggs, and other enriching ingredients. Sweet-dough formulas may be rich or lean, according to the percentage of eggs, shortening, sugar, and milk solids used. Formulas vary according to the product for which the dough is used (table 5). The baker may produce a variety of products from each type of dough by using a variety of shapes, by using different fillings in makeup, and by varying the finish or glaze of the baked product (fig. 12).


The method of preparation for each type of sweet dough is given on the recipe card. Armed Forces Recipe Service gives two methods for retarded-sweet-dough preparation. Retarded sweet dough is yeast dough that is placed in refrigeration for a period of time before baking. Refrigeration temperatures retard the fermentation process of the dough, but do not change the quality of the end product. Savings in production time of sweet doughs can amount to as much # 66 percent of a baker's time when the retarded method is used in place of the normal fermentation.


The mixing of a sweet dough is no more complex then the mixing of any other yeast-raised dough. The following suggestions should be followed to obtain a quality, sweet-dough product:

Follow the sequence of dough production outlined in the standard recipe.

  1. Ferment sweet dough as prescribed in the recipe.
  2. If the dough is to be given normal fermentation, floor time, and makeup, bring it from the mixer at 78 to 82 F.
  3. Because the makeup time for different types of sweet rolls and coffee cakes varies so much, start the makeup while the dough is on the young side and obtain longer bench tolerance.
  4. When using the retarded-sweet-dough method, mix the dough during a slack work period if possible.
  5. Shape the finished dough piece so that the finished product will have eye appeal.
  6. Plan for retarded-sweet-dough items to be baked off by someone other than the baker just in time to supply hot items for the serving time.


The temperature of the ingredients affects texture, tenderness, and keeping quality of sweet doughs. Methods of mixing are usually given for ingredients at room temperature (75 F.). The standard recipe indicates the amount of ingredients, temperature for mixing, mixing speed and time, plus the baking temperature and baking time.

  1. A gelatinous consistency may be caused by an excessive amount of liquid in proportion to flour.
  2. A dry, breadlike product that stales quickly is one of the results of overmixing.
  3. Tunnels, peaks, smooth crust, and poor browning may also be the result of overstirring.
  4. A coarse texture may be the result of undermixing.



Three types of dough formulas are used in making doughnuts: Cake dough, yeast-raised sweet dough, and commercially prepared, cake-doughnut mix procured for the military services. Doughnuts made from cake dough are chemically leavened with baking powder or a combination of soda and an acid ingredient. The doughnut mixes are also chemically leavened. Yeast-raised doughnuts are made from a rich sweet dough in which yeast is used for leavening. Yeast-raised doughnuts are made by the standard recipe: the dough is mixed, fermented, rolled out, cut by hand or machine, proofed to the proper size, fried in deep fat, and glazed or coated, as desired. Dry coatings are used most often on cake doughnuts, and glazes are usually applied to the yeast-raised type.


Basically, the doughnut formula is a sweet dough with the formula varied somewhat. Major changes are leavening, eggs, water and shortening are decreased and nonfat dry milk is increase. The standard recipe lists the ingredients and gives the method of preparation.


The following suggestions should help to obtain quality, raised-yeast doughnuts:

  1. Control the mixing temperature so that the dough laves the mixer at 90 F.
  2. Limit mixing time to about 7 minutes. (The dough should be medium soft.)
  3. Do not stretch dough unnecessarily because stretching tends to make the dough absorb a greater amount of fat during frying.
  4. Cut the doughnuts carefully to preclude overlapping of cuts and to avoid waste of dough. Reworked and rerolled doughs do not give cut doughnuts a smooth surface.
  5. Prepare dough that is to be cut and dispensed by an automatic machine by a different formula that requires more liquid. (Usually, cake doughnut formulas are used for this purpose.)
  6. Cool doughnuts to room temperature before sugaring them.
  7. Cool doughnuts to 160 F. before glazing them. A doughnut coming from a 375 F. fat will cool to this temperature in about 1 to 2 minutes.


The quality of ingredients is just as important in doughnut production as it is in the production of other yeast-raised items. Extreme care in mixing, fermentation, and makeup is essential to high-quality doughnut production. Listed below are some factors that influence the quality of the finished product:

  1. The sugar content in yeast-raised doughnuts controls to a certain extent the amount of browning and fat absorption during the frying.
  2. Doughs that are less than 90 F. absorb more fat during frying.
  3. Smooth surface of dough greatly influences the frying time and evenness of brown color.
  4. Overcooked doughnuts do not sugar well; the sugar sheds off rapidly.
  5. A sugared doughnut appearing moist on the surface may be undercooked.
  6. One of the most common reasons for undercooking or overcooking is too much moisture in the formula.
  7. Air circulation around the entire doughnut is Important to setting the glaze.
  8. Glaze should be sufficiently thin to flow and to allow excess to roll off.



Almost any lean dough formula can be used for making pizza, an all-time favorite in the dining facility. The major difference between a particular formula for pizza end a lean breed-dough formula is that the yeast is not fed; that is, sugar is not an ingredient in a pizza formula because it is not needed to supply the energy to the yeast. Volume is not a factor in fermentation of pizza dough. Fermentation for pizza is relatively short in comparison with other breed doughs, and makeup consists only of flattening dough to the required dimension.