Diagnostic Special Stains
Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase Stain (LAP).
- (1) Stains alkaline phosphatase present in the neutrophil.
- (2) Helpful in differentiating chronic myelogenous leukemia from a leukemoid reaction or polycythemia vera.
Myeloperoxidase Stain (MPO).
- (1) Stains peroxidase present in primary granules of myeloid cells; demonstrates the presence of Auer rods.
- (2) Used to differentiate acute myelogenous or monocytic leukemias (+) from acute lymphocytic leukemia (-).
Periodic Acid-Schiff Reaction (PAS).
- Stains high molecular weight carbohydrates normally present in most blood cell types except pronormoblasts.
- Used to help diagnose erythroleukemia where normoblasts may be strongly positive.
Sudan Black B (SBB).
- Stains phospholipids and lipoproteins present in granules of monocytes and granulocytes.
- Used to differentiate acute myelogenous and myelomonocytic leukemias (+) from acute lymphocytic leukemia (-).
- Stains acid phosphatase present in the lysosomes of all hematopoietic cells.
- Used to identify T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia.
Acid Phosphatase (With Tartrate Resistance).
- Acid phosphatase is present in all hematopoietic cells; -located in lysosomes.
- Stain is helpful in diagnosing hairy cell leukemia.
Nonspecific Esterase Stain.
- Stains esterases in monocytes and macrophages.
- Used to differentiate granulocytic leukemias (-) from monocytic leukemias (+).
Specific Esterase (Naphthol AS-D Chloracetate) Stain (CAE).
- Stains esterases present in mature and immature neutrophils and mast cells.
- Used to differentiate neutrophilic cells (+) from monocytic cells (-).
- Stains the granules in basophils and mast cells.
- Used to identify basophilic leukemia and mast cell disease.