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Abnormal cell maturation is asynchronous development as opposed to normal cell maturation or synchronous development. Since the normal sequence of cell maturation is upset, atypical cells will be present. Abnormal cells can be recognized by:
(1) abnormal cytoplasmic maturation
(2) abnormal nuclear maturation
(3) abnormal size


Asynchronism of the cytoplasm is most commonly seen in the granulocytes.

Granulation can be primitive or absent. In some instances, the granules fail to differentiate. Erythrocytes show basophilia late in the series and retarded hemoglobination. Inclusions in the cytoplasm, such as Dohle bodies (infectious diseases), Auer rods (leukemia), and toxic granulation (infection affecting the marrow) are seen in the abnormal white cells.


Abnormal cells often show two nuclei in severe disturbances, such as leukemia.

Nucleoli have a retarded reduction. The nucleus can have an irregular outline or indentation (Rieder cells). Hypersegmented nuclei occur in the neutrophils in sepsis and in pernicious anemia. Abnormal maturation of the nucleus often results in variation in cell size.


David L. Heiserman, Editor

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Revised: June 06, 2015