Exercises for Lesson 1
1. What is the clinical significance of urinalysis?
- a. Urinalysis can provide useful information on the patient's ability to produce volatile wastes.
- b. Urinalysis provides a good indication of the overall metabolic condition of the patient.
- c. Urinalysis serves as a means of evaluating the patient's state of health in every major system in his body.
- d. Urinalysis can provide the physician with specific information about the patient's state of health.
2. Select the statement that best describes a two-hour postprandial urine sample.
- a. This type of sample tends to reveal abnormalities in the patient's metabolism.
- b. This type of sample is collected two hours after an initial urine sample has been collected from the patient.
- c. This type of sample must be collected in a sterile container.
- d. This type of sample must be mixed with an appropriate preservative.
3. Which statement best contrasts urine collection by the catheterization method and the midstream (clean catch) method?
- a. Catheterization is used more often than the midstream method to obtain urine specimens.
- b. The midstream method usually obtains specimens, which are sterile, while samples gathered by catheterization are usually contaminated.
- c. The urine collected by catheterization should be placed in a sterile container, while the urine collected by the midstream method should be collected in only a clean container.
- d. The midstream method is used more frequently than the catheterization method to collect urine.
4. Select the statement that best describes the preservation of urine by formalin (10 percent).
- a. This preservative is required when there is a need to preserve the urobilinogen in the sample.
- b. This preservative should not be used when the glucose concentration in the urine is to be determined.
- c. This preservative forms a thin layer on the top of the sample and acts as a physical barrier to air and bacteria.
- d. This preservative is required when the sample is to be analyzed for amino acids on total nitrogen.
5. Which of the following is the median amount of urine produced by an average adult during a 24-hour period?
- a. 1000 milliliters.
- b. 1250 milliliters.
- c. 1400 milliliters.
- d. 2000 milliliters.
6. Select the meaning of the term "oliguria."
- a. An abnormal increase in the urine output during a 24 hour period.
- b. A reduction in the volume of urine excreted.
- c. A complete lack of urine production.
- d. A reduction in the total volume of urine caused by diabetes mellitus and/or diabetes insipidus.
7. Anuria means:
- a. A complete lack of urine excretion.
- b An abnormal reduction in the volume of urine excreted.
- c. The production of urine which contains excessive numbers of negative ions.
- d. The production of excessively concentrated urine.
8. A patient's urine sample is orange. Which of the following substance(s) could produce such orange-colored urine? [Note: More than one response may be correct.]
- a. Bile pigment.
- b. Carotene.
- c. Pyridium.
- d. All the above.
9. A patient is very concerned because her urine is red. What substance could be the cause of such red-colored urine? [Note: More than one response may be correct.]
- a. Porphyrins.
- b. Pyridium.
- c. Melanin.
- d. All the above.
10. Which statement best describes the principle of the refractometer in the evaluation of urine specific gravity?
- a. Specific gravity compares the density of urine to the density of distilled water.
- b. This method is of little value in determining whether or not the patient has a pathological condition.
- c. Early morning urine samples should have a smaller specific gravity than samples taken in the afternoon.
- d. Little variation is seen in the specific gravity of random samples taken during the course of 24 hours.
11. Select the statement which best describes the evaluation of foam produced in urine.
- a. White foam is usually present in samples, which contain high levels of bile pigments.
- b. Proteinuria will produce a marked increase in the foaming quality of urine.
- c. Normal urine, even when shaken vigorously, should produce no foam.
- d. Yellow foam in urine is always a sign of a pathological condition in a patient.
SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES, LESSON 1
- 8.b c
- 9.a b