## 9-2 Exercises for Lesson 9

1. Vital signs are:

a. _______________________________________________________.

b. _______________________________________________________.

c. _______________________________________________________.

d. _______________________________________________________.

2. One of the measurements taken to establish a baseline for further observation of the patient is his weight. Three reasons for weighing the patient are:

a. ____________________________________________________________.

b. ____________________________________________________________.

c. ____________________________________________________________.

3. Six principles related to weighing the patient are

a. __________________________________________________.

b. __________________________________________________.

c. __________________________________________________.

d. __________________________________________________.

e. __________________________________________________.

f. ___________________________________________________.

4. A helpless patient may be weighed while lying down on a ____________________.

5. Bold temperature is defined as the measure of heat inside the body or the balance

between __________________________________________________

6. Body heat is lost through:

a. ___________________ , which is direct physical contact with an object.

b. _____________________ when body heat warms the surrounding air.

c. _____________________ when body heat warms surrounding objects without

physical contact.

d. _____________________ when perspiration changes from a liquid to a vapor.

7. The average, normal, oral temperature for an adult is ________ ºF or ________ ºC.

8. To convert Celcius to Fahrenheit, you should ____________________ and

___________.

9. If the patient has a temperature of 37.5º C, the converted Fahrenheit temperature

would be:

a. 97.7º.

b. 99.5º.

c. 97.5º.

10. Four factors, which influence normal body temperature, are:

a. ______________________________________________________________.

b. ______________________________________________________________.

c. ______________________________________________________________.

d. ______________________________________________________________.

11. When the patient has an elevated temperature, _____________ (a fever) is

present.

12. The medical term for a temperature below normal is _____________________.

13. Patients most at risk for hypothermia are:

a. __________________________________________________.

b. __________________________________________________.

c. __________________________________________________.

14. To obtain an oral temperature, place the thermometer in the __________________

for _______________________ minutes.

15. To obtain a rectal temperature, insert the thermometer into the anal opening

__________ inches for ________________ minutes.

16. To obtain an axillary temperature, place the thermometer in a ___________

axilla for ____________________ minutes.

17. Certain precautions must be taken when obtaining a temperature. The rectal

method is contraindicated if the patient has:

a. ____________________________________________________.

b. ____________________________________________________.

c. ____________________________________________________.

18. There are eight common arterial pulse sites; list three of these sites.

a. ________________________________________________.

b. ________________________________________________.

c. ________________________________________________.

19. The pulse rate indicates how often the heart beats. _____________________

means that the heartbeat is abnormally rapid. When the heartbeat is continuously

slow, the condition is called __________________________________.

20. A normal pulse can be felt with moderate pressure of the finger. When greater

pressure exerted by the finger cannot blot out the pulse, it is called

_____________________________. A pulse with little force is described as

________________________________.

21. Body build and size are factors, which affect the pulse rate. A short, fat person will

probably have a _____________________ pulse rate than a tall, slender person.

22. The normal breathing pattern is relaxed, effortless, and regular. When breathing is

rapid, the term used is ________________________________.

23. ________________ is the medical term used when breathing is difficult or painful.

24. ____________________________ is the term for cycles of deep, rapid breaths for

about 30 seconds, followed by absence of respiration for 10 to 30 seconds. This

pattern of respiration sometimes precedes death.

25. Normal blood pressure for a young adult is about 120/80. ____________________

is blood pressure above 140/90. If the blood pressure is below 90/60, the patient

has _______________________________ and may be in shock.

26. List five factors, which influence blood pressure values:

a. _____________________________________________.

b. _____________________________________________.

c. _____________________________________________.

d. _____________________________________________.

e. _____________________________________________.

27. The most common site for measuring blood pressure is the ______________,

just above the antecubital area, using the_________________________ artery.

28. List two principles related to obtaining the blood pressure.

a. ____________________________________________________________.

b. ____________________________________________________________.

### Solutions to Exercises for Lesson 9

1. Temperature.

Pulse.

Respiration.

Blood pressure. (para 4-1)

2. Diet management.

Observation of medical status.

Calculation of medication dosages. (paras 4-2a--c)

3. Weigh him before breakfast.

Use the same scales.

Assure that the scales are properly balanced.

Weigh him in the same amount of clothing.

Have him void before you weigh him.

Avoid weighing any equipment attached to him. (paras 4-3e(1)--(6))

4. Litter scales. (para 4-3f)

5. Heat produced and heat lost. (para 4-4)

6. a. Conduction.

b. Convection.

d. Evaporation. (paras 4-5f(1)--(4))

7. 98.6ºF; 37.0ºC. (para 4-6a, Table 4-1)

8. Multiply by 9/5; add 32. (para 4-6b)

9. b (para 4-6b, Table 4-2)

10. Individual metabolism differs.

Body temperature is lower in the morning and higher in the evening.

Normal temperature for infants and children is higher than normal adult

temperature.

Ovulation in some women cause a slight rise followed by a drop in body

temperature. (paras 4-7a--d)

11. Pyrexia. (para 4-8a)

12. Hypothermia. (para 4-8b)

13. Postoperative patients.

Newborn infants.

Elderly or debilitated patients. (paras 4-8c(1)--(3))

14. Sublingual pocket; 3 to 4. (para 4-11a)

15. 1.5; 3 to 4. (para 4-11b)

16. Dry; 8 to 10. (para 4-11c)

17. Diarrhea.

Rectal disease.

Recently had rectal surgery. (para 4-11d)

18. Any three of the following is correct:

Temporal.

Carotid.

Apical.

Brachial.

Femoral.

Popliteal.

Dorsalis pedis. (para 4-12)

20. Full or bounding; weak or thready. (para 4-13b)

21. Higher. (para 4-14b)

22. Tachypnea. (para 4-17b)

23. Dyspnea. (para 4-17d)

24. Cheyne-Stokes. (para 4-17g)

25. Hypertension; hypotension. (para 4-18a)

26. Any five of the following is correct:

Age.

Sex.

Body build.

Exercise.

Pain.

Emotional status.

Disease state and medication. (paras 4-20a--g)

27. Arm; brachial. (para 4-19)

28. Any two of the following is correct:

The patient's arm must be at the level of the heart.

The arm should be supported during the entire procedure.

The cuff and stethoscope should be placed directly on the skin.

The cuff should be quickly deflated to zero, once the last measurement is heard.

(paras 4-21a--d)

End of Lesson 9

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