Learning Objective: Understand the basic principles of temperature, humidity, and air motion in relation to air conditioning.
Air conditioning is the process of conditioning the air in a space to maintain a predetermined temperature- humidity relationship to meet comfort or technical requirements. This warming and cooling of the air is usually referred to as winter and summer air conditioning.
Here, you are introduced to the operating principles of air-conditioning systems, the environmental factors controlled by air conditioning, and their effects on health and comfort. Refrigerative air conditioners and general procedures pertaining to the installation, operation, and maintenance of these systems are examined. Also, the operation and maintenance of the controls used with these systems are explained.
Temperature, humidity, and air motion are interrelated in their effects on health and comfort. The term given to the net effects of these factors is effective temperature. This effective temperature cannot be measured with a single instrument; therefore, a psychrometric chart aids in calculating the effective temperature when given sufficient known conditions relating to air temperatures and velocity.
Research has shown that most persons are comfortable in air where the effective temperature lies within a narrow range. The range of effective temperatures within which most people feel comfortable is called the COMFORT ZONE. Since winter and summer weather conditions are markedly different, the summer zone varies from the winter zone. The specific effective temperature within the zone at which most people feel comfortable is called the COMFORT LINE (fig. 7-1).
Figure 7-1.—Comfort zones and lines.
Air at a high temperature and saturated with moisture makes us feel uncomfortable. However, with the same temperature and the air fairly dry, we may feel quite comfortable. Dry air, as it passes over the surface of the skin, evaporates the moisture sooner than damp air and, consequently, produces greater cooling effect. However, air may be so dry that it causes us discomfort. Air that is too dry causes the surface of the skin to become dry and irritates the membranes of the respiratory tract.
HUMIDITY is the amount of water vapor in a given volume of air. RELATIVE HUMIDITY is the amount of water vapor in a given amount of air in comparison with the amount of water vapor the air would hold at a temperature if it were saturated. Relative humidity may be remembered as a fraction or percentage of water vapor in the air; that is, DOES HOLD divided by CAN HOLD.
Relative humidity is determined by using a sling psychrometer. It consists of a wet-bulb thermometer and a dry-bulb thermometer, as shown in figure 7-2. The wet-bulb thermometer is an ordinary thermometer similar to the dry-bulb thermometer, except that the bulb is enclosed in a wick that is wet with distilled water. The wet bulb is cooled as the moisture evaporates from it while it is being spun through the air. This action causes the wet-bulb thermometer to register a lower temperature than the dry-bulb thermometer. Tables and charts have been designed that use these two temperatures to arrive at a relative humidity for certain conditions.
Figure 7-2.—A standard sling psychrometer.
A comfort zone chart is shown in figure 7-3. The comfort zone is the range of effective temperatures within which the majority of adults feel comfortable. In looking over the chart, note that the comfort zone represents a considerable area. The charts show the wet- and dry-bulb temperature combinations that are comfortable to the majority of adults. The summer comfort zone extends from 66°F effective temperature to 75°F effective temperature for 98 percent of all personnel. The winter comfort zone extends from 63°F effective temperature to 71°F effective temperature for 97 percent of all personnel.
Figure 7-3.—Comfort zone chart.
The dew point depends on the amount of water vapor in the air. If the air at a certain temperature is not saturated (maximum water vapor at that temperature) and the temperature of that air falls, a point is finally reached at which the air is saturated for the new and lower temperature, and condensation of the moisture begins. This is the dew-point temperature of the air for the quantity of water vapor present.
A definite relationship exists between the wet-bulb, dry-bulb, and dew-point temperatures. These relationships are as follows:
To HUMIDIFY air is to increase its water vapor content. To DEHUMIDIFY air is to decrease its water vapor content. The device used to add moisture to the air is a humidifier, and the device used to remove the moisture from the air is a dehumidifier. The control device, sensitive to various degrees of humidity, is called a HUMIDISTAT.
Methods for humidifying air in air-conditioning units usually consist of an arrangement that causes air to pick up moisture. One arrangement consists of a heated water surface over which conditioned air passes and picks up a certain amount of water vapor by evaporation, depending upon the degree of humidifying required. A second arrangement to humidify air is to spray or wash the air as it passes through the air-conditioning unit.
During the heat of the day, the air usually absorbs moisture. As the air cools at night, it may reach the dew point and give up moisture, which is deposited on objects. This principle is used in dehumidifying air by mechanical means.
Dehumidifying equipment for air conditioning usually consists of cooling coils within the air conditioner. As warm, humid air passes over the cooling coils, its temperature drops below the dew point and some of its moisture condenses into water on the surface of the coils. The condensing moisture gives up latent heat that creates a part of the cooling load that must be overcome by the air-conditioning unit. For this reason, the relative humidity of the air entering the air conditioner has a definite bearing on the total cooling load. The amount of water vapor that can be removed from the air depends upon the air over the coils and the temperature of the coils.
The air should be free from all foreign materials, such as ordinary dust, rust, animal and vegetable matter, pollen, carbon (soot) from poor combustion, fumes, smoke, and gases. These types of pollution are harmful to the human body alone; however, they include an additional danger because they also carry bacteria and harmful germs. So, the outside air brought into a space or the recirculating air within a space should be filtered during air conditioning.
Air in an air conditioner may be purified or cleaned by filters, air washing, or electricity.
Filters may be designed as permanent or throwaway types. They are usually made of fibrous material, which collects the particles of dust and other foreign matter from the air as it passes through the filter. In some cases, the fibers are dry, while in others they have a viscous (sticky) coating. Filters usually have a large dust-holding capacity. When filters become dust-laden, they are either discarded or cleaned. Permanent filters are usually cleaned. Throwaway filters are only one-time filters and are discarded when they become dust-laden.
Often water sprays are used to recondition the air by washing and cleaning it. These sprays may also serve to humidify or dehumidify the air to some extent.
In some large air-conditioning systems, air is cleaned by electricity. In this type of system, electrical precipitators remove the dust particles from the air. The air is first passed between plates where the dust particles are charged with electricity; then the air is passed through a second set of oppositely charged plates that attract and remove the dust particles (fig. 7-4). This method is by far the best method of air cleaning, but the most expensive.
Figure 7-4.—Diagram of an electrostatic filter.
The velocity of the air is the primary factor that determines what temperature and humidity are required to produce comfort. (The chart in figure 7-3 is based on an air movement of 15 to 25 feet per minute.) We know from experience that a high velocity of air produces a cooling effect on human beings. However, air velocity does not produce a cooling effect on a surface that does not have exposed moisture. A fan does not cool the air, but merely increases its velocity. The increased velocity of air passing over the skin surfaces evaporates moisture at a greater rate; thereby, cooling the individual. For this reason, circulation of air has a decided influence on comfort conditions. Air can be circulated by gravity or mechanical means.
When air is circulated by gravity, the cold, and therefore heavier, air tends to settle to the floor, forcing the warm and lighter air to the ceiling. When the air at the ceiling is cooled by some sort of refrigeration, it will settle to the floor and cause the warm air to rise. The circulation of the air by this method will eventually stop when the temperature of the air at the ceiling is the same as the temperature on the floor.
Air may be circulated by mechanical means by axial or radial fans. When either the axial or radial fan is mounted in an enclosure, it is often called a blower.
Questions for Lesson 1