Lesson 5.1 Roof Types
The roof's main purpose is to keep out the rain, cold, or heat. It must be strong enough to withstand high winds sloped to shed water; and, in areas of heavy snow, it must be constructed more rigidly to bear the extra weight.
This part will familiarize carpenters with the most common types of roof construction. Roofs are chosen to suit the building; the climate; the estimated length of time the building will be used; and the material, time, and skill required for construction.
3-1. Gable Roof.
This roof has two roof slopes that meet at the center (ridge), forming a gable. It is the most common roof because it is simple, economical, and may be used on any type of structure. Refer to Figure 3-1 .
Figure 3-1. Gable roof
3-2. Lean-To or Shed Roof.
This roof used where hasty or temporary construction is needed and where sheds or additions to buildings are erected. The pitch of this roof is in one direction only. The roof is held up by the walls or posts on four sides. One wall, or the posts on one side, is higher than those on the opposite side. Refer for Figure 3-2 .
Figure 3-2. Lean-to or shed roof
3-3. Hip Roof.
This roof has four sides or slopes running upward toward the center of the building to create a ridge (or peak). Rafters at the corners run diagonally from the bottom edge to meet at the center (ridge). Other rafters are then framed into them. Refer to Figure 3-3 .
Figure 3-3. Hip roof
3-4. Valley Roof.
This roof is framed of two intersection hip or gable roofs. The two roofs meet at a valley. Each roof slants in a different direction. This roof is seldom used, since it is complicated and requires much time and labor. Refer to Figure 3-4 .
Figure 3-4. Valley roof